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TERM I (NOTES)
Nazism And The Rise of Hitler
Q-1) What were the provisions of treaty of Versailles?
A-1) The treaty of Versailles was harsh and humiliating one. It’s provisions were:-
1.Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of it’s population,13 percent of it’s territories,75 percent of its iron and 26 percent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.
2.The allied powers demilitarized Germany to weaken its power.
3.Germany was forced to pay compensation of the damages. Allied countries Suffered amounting to $6 billion.
4.The allied armies also occupied the resource rich Rhineland for much of 1920’s.-
Q-2) Who were the NOVEMBER CRIMINALS ?
A-2)After Germany lost in world war 1 and its emperor was abdicated, a national assembly was formed atWeimar i.e the German parliament.It was known as Weimar republic, mainly socialists, catholics and democrats and became easy targets of attack in the conservative nationalist circles.They were mockingly called “NOVEMBER CRIMINALS”
Q-3) Explain the following:-
1.ALLIES-The Allies powers were initially led by the UK and France.In 1941 they were joined by the USSR and USA.They fought against powers namely GERMANY,ITALY and JAPAN.
2.REISHSTAG- After Germany lost in world war 1,a national assembly met at Weimar and established a democratic constitution with a federal structure in Germany.The newly elected german parliament was called REISHSTAG.
3.CONCENTRATION CAMPS-A camp where people were isolated and detained without due process of law. Typically it was surrounded by electrified fences.
4.JUNGVOLK- Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age.
5.HOLOCAUST-The nazi rilling operationa during which the jews endured atrocities and suffereing were called as HOTOCAUST.
6.LEKENSRAUMOR LIVING SPACE-It was the geopolitical concept of Hitler’s ideology.He believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement which would enhance the area of mother country and enable the settelers on new lands to retain an intimate link with the place of origin.
7.GESTAPO OR THE SECRET STATE POLICE-It was a special surveillance and security force created to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted. It was thus given extra constitutional powers.
8.NUREMBERG TRIBUNAL-At the end of world war 2,an international military tribunal at Nuremberg was set up to prosecute nazi war criminals for crimes against peace, against humanity, for war crimes.
9.NAZI PARTY-German worker’s party was a small group and was joined by Adolph Hitler in 1919 who subsequently took over the organization and renamed it as the NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKER’S PARTYor NAZI PARTY.
10.GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION-During this factories were shut down,exports fell, farmers were badly hit and speculators withdrew their money from the market. The effects of this recession in US economy were felt worldwide.
Q-4) What were the defects of Weimar republic ?
A-4) The two defects of Weimar republic were:-
1. Its proptional representation which made achieving a majaority by any one party, a nearly impossible task,leading to a rule by coilations.\
2.The article 48 which gave the president the powers to empose emergency suspend civil rights and rule by decre.
Q-5) Why was the treaty of Versailles a humiliating experience for Germany because:-
1. Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of it’s population,13 percent of it’s territories,75 percent of its iron and 26 percent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.
2. The allied powers demilitarized Germany to weaken its power.
3. The war guilt cause held Germany responsible for war and forced to pay compensation amounting to $6 billion.
4. The allied armies also occupied the resource rich Rhineland for much of the 1920’s Many Germans held the new Weimar republic responsible for not only the defeat but the disgrace at Versailles.
Q-6)In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people?
A-6) Once in power the Nazis quickly began to implement their clream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure germans by physically eliminating all those who were seen as undesirable.
• Nazis only wantd a society of pure blooded worchac Aryans.They were alone considered desirable.
• Only they were seen as a worthy of propertying and multiplying.
• Gypsies and blacks were considered as racially inferior, which threatened the biological purity of the superior Aryans had.
• Even Russians and poles were considered subhumans and hence undesiring of any humanity.
• When germany occupied Poland and parts of Russia,captured civilians were forced to work as slave labour. Many of them died of starvation and hardwork.
• Jews remained the worst suffered in nazi germany .The hatred of jews had a precurson in the traditional Christian hostility towards jews .Thay have been stereotyped as killers of Christ.
Q-7) Explain why nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for jews?
• A-7) The Nazis used language and media with care and often to great effects.
• They used deceptive practices. Nazis never used the “work or murder”.Mass killings were termed “special treatment”, “enthansia”, “selection” and “disinfection”.
• Media was carefully used to gain support and popularize it worldwide.
• The ideas were spread through images, films, radioposters,groups identified as enimies were stereotyped,mocked,abused.
• Socialists and liberals were represented as weak and degenerate.
• Propoganda films were made to create hatred.They were shown with flowing beards,wearing raftan whereas in reality it was difficult to distinguish german jews by their appearance.
• They were reffered as vermis,rats as pests.Their movements were compared to those of rodents. Nazism worked on the minds of the people trapped their emotions and turned hatred and anger at those marked as undersirable.
Q-8) Explain the role of women in nazi society?
A-8) In nazi society women were created different than men.
• The principal role assigned to women was to become good mothers and give birth to pure blooded Aryan children. They were motivated for this.
• Their main obligence was to maintain the purity of race. They were expected to look after their homes and teach children Nazi values.
Q-9) Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930?
• A-9) It was during the great depression that nazizim became a mass movement
• Banks collapsed, bussinesses shut down, workers lost their jobs. In such a
• Situation Nazi propaganda sterred hopes of a better future.
• Hitler was a powerful speaker. His passion and hid words move people he p promised to build a strong nation undo the justice if Versailles treaty and restore dignity.
• He provisioned employment for those looking for work and a secure future for the youth. He promised to use all foreign influences.
• He advised a new style of politics. He understood the significance of rituals mass mobilization.
• He held massive rallies and public meetings.
Q-10) What are peculiar feature of Nazi thinking ?
• A-10) In their view there was no equality between people but only a racial hierarchy.
• In this world blood, blue eyed norchiacs were at the top while jews were at the lowest. They were as regarded as anti racial.
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