CBSE Class 8 Social Science Modernisation in World Notes

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science Modernisation in World Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.


* History is a continuous flow of event from the beginning to the end and as such it is very difficult to divide into water tight compartment.
*History has also been divided into 3 periods – Ancient, Medieval and Modern period.

Meaning of Modern Period :-
*Modern period in Europe began in 15th century whereas, India's modern period began in 18th century.
* Modern period includes industrialisation, urbanisation, development in the means of transport and communication.
* Development of democratic political systems uniform laws, widespread literacy & large scale migration of people in search of occupations.

 Characteristics of modern Age :-

*New development in science, arts, philosophy, history.
* Revival of urban life.
* Development of trade, banking.
* Formation of Nations states.
* Achievements in vernacular literature, design, art and architecture.
*Events that helped coming of modern Age in the world

1. Geographical explorations & Discoveries :-
Explorations due to 14 & 15th centuries led to the discovery of new sea routes.
Discovery of new continents of America, Africa and Asia.
2. Entrepreneurs :-
Accumulation of wealth trade gave rise to banking. This in turn led to emergence of a new class of entrepreneurs.
They invested the money in new enterprises and manufacturing units.
3. Renaissance and Reformation :-
The two movements that took place in medieval period they provided the beginning of modern age.
4. New Inventions :-
Many invention like printing, sailing instruments, astronomical apparatus like telescope & the discoveries that followed became messengers of new ideas.
5. Nation states :-
These were political institutions, the foundations were laid in the late medieval period but carried forward that
finally led to growth of modern period.
8 Conclusion :-
All the above & other developments that took place in medieval period proceeded gradually & lay the foundations of modern period.

*Beginning of the Modern Period in Europe (15th Century)
* Factors that led to modernization in Europe :-

1. Development of trade :-
Trade between Europeans & Arabs led to the rise of rich merchants, with whose support many Europeans rulers established strong states.
2. Urbanization :-
Trade helped in growth of large cities with modern infrastructure such as transport.
3. Development of New Ideas :-
Cities became the centre of secular learning which developed the spirit of questioning, reasoning.
4. Development of scientific inventions :-
Invention of press – led to the spread of ideas – people began to take new interest in different aspect of human life – Humanism.
Inventing of mariner's compass, quadrant and Astrolabe.
Improvement in ship building and cartography (map-making) – use of gun powder.
5. Discovery of New sea routes :-
New lands were discovered, new trade products & trade settlements were setup in various parts of Asia, Africa & latin America.
6. Growth of trade :-
By the end of 16th century, European made huge profits – Even the rulers sponsored the traders and shared profits in return.Thus
Establishment of English East India Company in 1600.
Dutch East India Company in 1602 and French East India Company in 1664.
7. Development of Colonies & Colonisation :-
Gradually, European countries established their political control over the large areas of trade, this came to be known as colonies and process of acquiring colonies came to be known as colonisation.
8. Industrialisation :-
Great changes occurred in the industry in the midst of 18th century – These tremendous changes in industry are collectively known as INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.
Industrial Revolution came in England between 1760 and 1825. It then spread to Belgium, France, Germany Italy etc. The revolution brought many social, economic & political changes in England. Industrial Revolution led to development of roads, transport communication, railways, steam ship, expansion of trade & Industries.

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