CBSE Class 9 Natural resources. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
Nature Of Resources
1. The” Biosphere” is the life supporting zone of the earthwith three sub-zones called as lithosphere (rock part), atmosphere (air part)and hydrosphere (water part).
Breath of air
2. Composition of Air
3.The interactions between different components of the Biosphere to maintain the balance between the biotic and a biotic component makes “Biogeochemical cycle”. Ex. Water Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Carbon cycle, Oxygen Cycle,
4. Role of atmosphere in climate control : atmosphere act as protective blanket for the earth. Since atmosphere is a bad conductor of heat, it keeps the average temperature of the earth constant. At night, it slows down the escape of heat into outer space.
5. The movement of air : the atmosphere gets heated from the radiation that is reflected back by the land or water bodies. As a result of heating, convection currents are set up in the air. Since land gets heated faster than water, the air over land gets heated faster than air above water bodies.
6. In coastal regions, during the day, the air above the land gets heated faster and starts rising. So a region of low pressure is created and air over sea moves into this area of low pressure. The movement of air from one region to the other region causes Wind.
7. During the day, the direction of wind would be from the sea to the land and at night, both land and sea starts to cool. Since water cools down slower than the land, the air above water would be warmer than air above land, thus the direction of wind would be from the land to the sea.
8. Air pollution : it is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics. It is caused due to an increase in the content of harmful substances (pollutant) such as oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, etc.
9. Harmful effect of air pollution :
• It affects the respiratory system causing breathing difficulties eg; bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, tuberculosis, etc.
• Burning of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum releases oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. Inhalation of these gases is dangerous.
• Combustion of fossil fuel also increases the amount of suspended particles in air. The presence of high levels of all these pollutants, reduce visibility in cold weather where water also condenses out of air forming smog.
• Acid rain formed from the gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides present in polluted air. It causes damage to living and non- living thing.
3. The Water Cycle:
a) The process in which water evaporates and falls on the land as rain and later flows back into the sea via rivers is known as the “Water Cycle”. Water flows through rocks containing soluble minerals, some of them get dissolved in the water. Thus the rivers carry many nutrients from the land to sea and these are used by the marine organisms.
b) When the water vapors condense as water droplets and grow big and heavy, they fall down in the form of “rain”. It ranges from 5 cm to 200 cm of rain fall in a year in our
country. In large parts of India, rains are mostly brought by the south-west or north-east monsoons. Depressions in the Bay of Bengal may also cause rains in some areas.
c) Water is a wonder liquid because all cellular processes take place in a water medium; substances are transported in a dissolved form; terrestrial forms require fresh water to maintain the equilibrium of salts; major resource to determine the life on the earth.
d) The dissolved fertilizers (NPK fertilizers), pesticides (DDT), sewage (Disease causing Organisms), waste from factories (Mercury) and water released from the dams can affect the life forms on the earth. The dissolved Oxygen is being used by the animals and plants that live in water, would adversely affect the aquatic organisms. The change in temperature would be dangerous for the eggs and larvae of the various animals particularly susceptible to temperature changes. It leads to “water pollution”.
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