CBSE Class 8 Civics - Indian Constitution important notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
History is the story of the people who lived in the past. The events that happened in the past ten thousand years ago; are part of our History.
Why we study history?
History tell us about how people lived in the past, what they ate and wore, what they discovered and invented, what they painted and built, which gods they worshipped, how they overcome their big and small problem, and many more things. Why people fought or co-operated; composed music or built forts
Prehistory is that period of human development when human being did not know how to read and write. So they did not leave behind any written records for us to learn about them.
History is the period for which written records are available. It is the period after which writing was invented.
Archaeological sources :- As human did not know how to write in the prehistoric period, so we depend totally on objects and materials they have left behind to understand their life for e.g.–pots, pans, toy, beads, wore jewellery, monuments, inscriptions, coins etc.
Archaeology: - The science of exploring and excavating old ruins and studying them is called archaeology.
Monuments: - Archaeologists also study monuments that are buried but are still standing. Any building that is of historical significance is considered to be monument. For e.g. Taj Mahal, Red fort etc.
Inscriptions: - Written records engraved on pillars, walls of temples, cavex forts, palaces and on clay or copper tables are called inscriptions. The Allahabad pillar inscription present at description of the conquest of Samudragupta.
Literary or written records: - Humans learnt to write only about 5,000 years ago. They invented alphabets and put them together to form words and sentences. In the beginning they wrote on stone walls, palm leaves and the bark of trees.
Manuscripts: - When paper was invented they began to use paper for writing. These are called manuscripts. Manuscripts are formed in many languages and are preserved in libraries and museums.
Epics: - Ramayana and Mahabharata are epics which was written over a long period of time.
Accounts of foreign travelers: - Many writers’ scholars and traders travelled to India from ancient times and wrote about the lifestyles, customs and traditions.
Megatheres lived in India for some time as a Greek ambassador at the court of Chandragupta Maurya. He wrote a book known as Indica. Two Chinese travelers Fahien and Hien Tsang came to India to study Buddhism and wrote about that period.
Four Vedas – Rigveda’s, Sam Vedas, Yajurveda and Artharveda, Brahman, Karnataka and Upanishad.
Puranas are the most important religious works of Hindu. The holy books Vedas give us an idea of the political social and religious life of the Indians of that age. The Harsha Charita by Bane Bhatt, which is an account on the life of King Harsha (AD 606–47)
The Sangam literature gives an insight into the social, economic and political life of the people of deltaic Tamil Nadu in the early Christian centuries.
Buddhist religious literature is also an important source of knowledge for ancient Indian history. The literature consists of:-
(i) Pitka (ii) Nikay (iii) Jatak.
There are many literary master pieces which help in tracing the history of Mauryan age.
Kausalya 'Aretha Shastra' has unique position as source material for Mauryan History.
The first historical writing by an Indian is attributed to Kalpana who wrote the Rajatarangini in the twelfth century.
In Europe modern period have begun in the 16th century, but in India, the 16th century was a part of the medieval period when Mughal emperors like Babur, Humayun and Akbar ruled over. Modern period began in India after the death of Aurangzeb 1707 i.e. in the beginning of 18th century. The death of Aurangzeb was followed by decentralization of power and emergence of a umber of smaller states. Many European traders like Britain, France, Portugal and Netherland came to India and established their trading posts.
What is meant by Modern Period?
The term 'modern period refers to the recent times. Main features of modern period include industrialisation, urbanisation, swift transport and communication, democratic political system, uniform laws, widespread literacy and large-scale migration of people in search of occupation.
Industrial Revolution :-
The production of goods in large number with the help of machines in factories is known as Industrial revolution.
Capitalism :- The economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and are operated for profit.
Imperialism :- The tendency of extending control of one country over another territory is referred as imperialism. (The Latin word 'imperium' meaning power). The country which conquers another land another land or territory is known as the imperial country and the country which has been conquered is known as a colony.
Why is it called Industrial Revolution ?
The beginning of industrial production marked a radical change from the previous system. It not only led to large scale production of a good in the factory-but also replaced manual labor. England had few advantages like abundance of natural resources like coal and iron which made it the first country to go through the phase of Industrial revolution. It later spread to France, Germany and other European country.
Voyager of Discovery:-
In the mid fifteenth century, the Turks took control of the overland trade route from Europe to the East. European than discovered the sea routes to the east. The invention of the Mariner's compass; quadrant and astrolabe, improvements in ship building and cartography (map making) and the use of gun powder improved the prospects of long sea voyages. Spanish and Portuguese rulers explorers like Christopher Columbus; Vasco da Gama and Ferdinand Magellan discovered new sea routes to the west and the east. In 1492, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on the Malabar Coast of India. The Portuguese established trading station in Goa, Daman and Diu in India with the help of better weapons and navigational skills.
Political Revolution: - A political Revolution took place in England after French Revolution (1789) and American Revolution (1776). In late 17th century the monarch became answerable to the Parliament and the representative body of the people.
Modern period in India
In India, the modern period began in the mid eighteenth century. Industrial Revolution began in England and around the same time the English East India Company began to colonies India. The later Mughals, the Marathas and the English East Company emerged as the chief contenders for political supremacy in India. The Mughal Empire finally collapsed after a great revolt against the Company in 1857. The Company was dissolved in 1858 and the British took direct control over India. In India there was a freedom struggle against British colonial rule, which ultimately led to India's independence in 1947. Thereafter, India became a democratic republic.
New Regional Identities in the 18th Century
After Aurangzeb's death 1707, the Mughal Empire declined. New regional powers emerged. Shivaji established the Maratha tate in modern Maharashtra. The Maratha became strong rivals of the Mughals in the Deccan. The Pesewas expanded Maratha influence into North India with the help of some powerful Maratha chief. The independent state of Hyderabad, Bengal and Awadh established by Mughal governors. Persian and Afghan invasions under Nadir Shah (1739) and Ahmad Shah Abdali 1748–1761). By the end of the 18th century, the Sikhs established the independent state of Punjab under the leadership of Ranjit Singh. The Sikhs controlled Punjab, Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh
Sources of the History of Modern India
Sources of the History of Modern India
We have enough sources at our disposal as far as modern period of the history of India is concerned. The chief among them are
Printed Books: – Due to the invention of printing press during this period a lot of books both in Indian and foreign languages were printed which through light on various aspects of the Indian life. These also tell us about the progress such as medicine, engineering, technology, art, material, history mathematics, music, dance drama and so on.
Government Documents: – During this period, different powers played their parts in different parts of the country. The rulers and the powers which existed during this period exchanged documents with each other. These govt. documents have been well preserved and are now easily available. From their study we can easily know how different powers dealt with each other and how ultimately the British over-powered them one by one.
Newspapers, Magazines, Pamphlets etc.: – We also get a lot of information about the modern period from a large number of newspapers, magazines, pamphlets etc. Which were printed in different parts of India in different languages. Some of them are still in publication and they have kept a record of their old editions in their libraries.
Historical buildings: – We can still see many historical buildings in our country which have many stories and episodes linked with them. Some such buildings are India gate, central secretariat, the Rashtrapati bhavan, the Parliament house, the Birla house, where Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in 1948. These buildings throw a good deal of light on different aspects of the architectural achievements of India.
Other works of Art: – Various statues, paintings of their period also tell us about the physical features and achievements of the national leaders and great historical personalities.
Miscellaneous sources: – Beside these sources there are other sources also like films which throw a good deal of light on the contemporary people and their way of life. The impression which they leave on us remains quite permanent because we see the different events happening before our very eyes.