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Economics Story Of Village Palampur Class 9 Economics Revision Notes
Class 9 Economics students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Economics Story Of Village Palampur in standard 9. These exam notes for Grade 9 Economics will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Economics Story Of Village Palampur Notes Class 9 Economics
SUBJECT – ECONOMICS
CHAPTER – STORY OF VILLAGE PALAMPUR
Q1 Which is the main production activity in villages across India?
A1 Farming is the main production activity in villages across India.
Q2 Name any two non-farming activities in Palampur village.
A2 Small-scale manufacturing , dairy farming , transport , services etc.
Q3 Who owns the majority of land in Palampur village?
A3 80 upper caste families own the majority of land in Palampur village.
Q4 What educational facilities are available in Palampur village?
A4 Palampur has two primary schools and one high school.
Q5 What health facilities are available in Palampur village?
A5 Palampur has a primary health centre run by the government and one private dispensary where sick are treated.
Q6 What is the main aim of production?
A6 The main aim of production is to produce goods and services required by the people.
Q7 What is marketable surplus?
A7 The difference between the quantity of output that a farmer produces during a year and the quantity that he keeps with himself for his own and family’s consumption is called marketable surplus.
Q8 Who are small farmers?
A8 Farmers who own less than 2 hectares of land.
Q9 Who are medium farmers?
A9 Farmers who own more than 2 hectares and less than 10 hectares of land.
Q10 Who are large farmers?
A10 Farmers who own more than 10 hectares of land.
Q11 What is the basic constraint in raising farm production?
A11 Land area under cultivation is the basic constraint in raising farm production because it is fixed and scarce.
Q12 What is the minimum wage rate for a farm labourer?
A12 The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by government is Rs 60 per day.
Q13 Which is the most abundant factor of production?
A13 Labour is the most abundant factor of production.
Q14 What do medium and large farmers do with their earnings from the surplus farm produce?
A14 A part of the earnings from surplus farm produce is saved e kept for buying capital for the next season. Another part may be utilized for landing to small farmers who require loan.
Q15 Which changes have taken place in the way of farming practiced in India?
A15 a) Traditional seeds have been replaced by HYVs.
b) Cow dung and other natural manure were replaced by chemical fertilizers.
c) Use of pesticides.
d) Use of farm machinery like tractors , threshers etc for ploughing and harvesting.
e) Use of tubewells for irrigation instead of Persian wheels.
Q16 How did the spread of electricity help the people of Palampur?
A16 Electricity helped farmers in running the tubewells in the field and is also used for carrying out various small scale business in the village. The electricity run tubewells, irrigate larger areas of land in more effective manner that Persian wheels which were earlier used to draw water from the wells to irrigate the fields.
Q17 Why are the wages of farm labourers in Palampur less than the minimum wages?
A17 The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is Rs 60 per day but a farm labourer in Palampur gets only Rs 35-40 per day. It is because there is heavy competition for work among the farm labourer in Palampur, so people agree to work at lower wages.
Q18 Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land?
A18 A farmer with less than 2 hectares of land is regarded as a small farmer. Since the size of plot is very small, therefore, he cannot fulfill the needs of his family. He will have to work as a farm labourer in the fields of medium and large farmers for an amount of Rs 40-50 per day. In order to cultivate his field he will have to borrow money from large farmers or moneylenders or traders. From the borrowed money he will buy fertilizers, pesticides, seeds etc.
Q19 Give the characteristics of Rural Industries.
A19 Rural Industries are small scale manufacturing units. Their features are:-
1. These involve very simple production methods.
2. The output is very small.
3. The work is carried out by the members of the family and rarely the labourers are hired.
4. The work is carried out at home and not in workshops.
5. The profits earned are also less.
Q20 What are the different ways of increasing the production on the same piece of land?
A20 Following are the 5 different ways of increasing the production on the same piece of land:
1. Use of multiple cropping. It means growing more than one crop on a given piece of land at the same time.
2. Use of HYV’s. These can be used to produce much greater amounts of grain in a single plant.
3. Chemical fertilizers and Pesticides. Their use produce better results by providing sufficient materials to the soil and pesticides protecting the crops from pest attacks.
4. Modern equipments like tractors, threshers, which made ploughing and harvesting faster.
5. Tubewell irrigation. Electricity run tubewells irrigate much larger area in a more effective manner and increase the yields.
Q21 How do medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?
Ans: Medium and large farmers sell surplus farm produce in the market and earn good money. The money so earned is used to buy capital for farming in the next season. Thus medium and large farmers are able to arrange for capital for farming from their own savings. On the other hand, small farmers do not have their own savings because their production is small which is mainly used for fulfilling their own family needs. Small farmers therefore, avail loans from the medium and large farmers at very high rates of interest. Small farmers also borrow money from various inputs for cultivation. These farmers are put to a great distress to repay the loan.
Q22 Explain the 4 factors of production?
A22 The aim of production is to provide goods and services that we want. There are four requirements for the production of goods and services which are known as factors of production.
1. Land and other natural resources such as water, minerals, forests etc.
2. Labour. It refers to the people who will do work for us. There are 2 types of labour:
• Skilled Labour. These are the high trained or educated workers to perform the special and necessary tasks.
• Unskilled Labour. These people do the manual physical work.
3. Physical Capital. It refers to the variety of inputs required at every stage of production. It is of2 types.
• Fixed Capital. Tools, machines, buildings etc. that can be used for production over many years.
• Working Capital. Raw material and money in hand and other inputs that get used up in one round of production only.
4. Human Capital / Entrepreneur. It refers to the knowledge and enterprise required to combine land, labour and physical capital to produce the output.
Q23 Who is a farm labourer? Throw a light on their economic condition.
A23 A farm labourer is a person who works on the land owned by another person. He is paid for his services in the form of wages by the landowner. Wages may be paid in cash or kind. Farm labour is generally comprised of landless people and/or very small farmers whose owned land does not generate enough to support even bare subsistence living.Farm labourers may get a regular job on a farm and may work throughout the year. But agriculture is a seasonal activity. More often , farm labourers get employed only during a particular seasonal activity e.g. ploughing of land , harvesting and threshing of crop.
More generally , there are more persons willing to work as farm labourers than are required at any point of time. Introduction of farm machinery has substantially reduced the demand for farm labour. Landowners are in a position to exploit this opportunity to their advantage. They pay them less wages. These may even be less than the minimum wages fixed by the government. But since the choice is between their starvation and some wages , they opt for the latter.
Farm labourers are compelled to borrow ; once in debt , they find it difficult to get out of it. Farm labourers live a life of destitution.
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