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Acids Bases And Salts Class 10 Chemistry Revision Notes
Class 10 Chemistry students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Acids Bases And Salts in standard 10. These exam notes for Grade 10 Chemistry will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Acids Bases And Salts Notes Class 10 Chemistry
CBSE Class 10 Chemistry Acids Bases And Salts Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations. For more study material for Chemistry please click here - class 10 chemistry chapter 4 notes.
Acids, Bases and Salts
2. On the basis of origin, acids are classified as:
a). Organic acids: Acids derived from living organisms like plants and animals are called organic acids. They are weak acids and are not harmful for living organisms. For example: citric acid is present in fruits, acetic acid present in vinegar, oxalic acid present in tomato, tartaric acid present in tamarind, lactic acid present in sour milk and curd.
b). Mineral acids: They are also called inorganic acids. They are dangerous and corrosive. Special precautions have to be taken while handling them. For example: sulphuric acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl) etc.
3. On the basis of their strength, acids are classified as:
a. Strong acids: Strong acids are those acids which completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. Example: nitric acid (HNO3) , sulphuric acid(H2SO4), hydrochloric acid(HCl)
b. Weak acids: Weak acids are those acids which do not completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. For example: carbonic acid (H2CO3), acetic acid (CH3COOH)
4. On the basis of their concentration, acids are classified as:
a. Dilute acids: Have a low concentration of acids in aqueous solutions.
b. Concentrated acids: Have a high concentration of acids in aqueous solutions.
5. Alkalies: Water soluble bases are called alkalies. For example: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide(KOH)
6. On the basis of their strength, bases are classified as:
a. Strong bases: Strong bases are those bases which completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions.
Example: sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) b. Weak bases: Weak bases are those bases which do not completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. For example: ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) 7. On the basis of their concentration, bases are classified as: a. Dilute bases: Have a low concentration of alkali in aqueous solutions.
b. Concentrated bases: Have a high concentration of alkali in aqueous solutions. 8. Acids and bases conduct electricity because they produce ions in water. There is a flow of electric current through the solution by ions.
9. Indicators are those chemical substances which behave differently in acidic and basic medium and help in determining the chemical nature of the substance. Acid base indicators indicate the presence of an acid or a base by a change in their colour or smell.
10.Indicators can be natural or synthetic.
11.Olfactory indicators: These are those indicators whose odour changes in acidic or basic medium. Example: onion
12.Onion: Smell of onion diminishes in a base and remains as it is in an acid.
13.Vanilla essence: The odour of vanilla essence disappears when it is added to a base. The odour of vanilla essence persists when it is added to an acid.
14.Turmeric: In acids, yellow colour of turmeric remains yellow. In bases, yellow colour of turmeric turns red.
15.Litmus: Litmus is a natural indicator. Litmus solution is a purple dye which is extracted from lichen. Acids turn blue litmus red. Bases turn red litmus blue. Water is essential for acids and bases to change the colour of litmus paper. Remember that litmus paper will act as an indicator only if either the litmus paper is moist or the acid or base is in the form of aqueous solution. This is because acids and bases release H+ and OH- ions respectively in aqueous solutions.
16.Phenolphthalein: Phenolphthalein remains colourless in acids but turn pink in bases.
17.Methyl orange: Methyl orange turns pink in acids and becomes yellow in bases.
18.Reaction of acids and bases with water:
19.Reaction of acids and bases with metals:
Metals displace hydrogen from the acids and form salt and hydrogen gas. This is a displacement reaction. So, acids react with only those metals which are placed above hydrogen in the reactivity series so that metals can displace hydrogen from acids.
20.Reaction of acids and bases with metal carbonates:
Acids react with metal carbonate to form salt, water and release carbon dioxide.
21.Reaction of acids and bases with metal bicarbonates:
Acids react with metal bicarbonate to form salt, water and release carbon dioxide.
22. Reaction of acids with bases: Neutralisation reaction: Acids react with bases to form salt and water.
23.Reaction of acids with metallic oxides:
Metallic oxides are basic. Therefore, acids react with metallic oxides to form salt and water.
HCl + CuO ® CuCl2 + H2O
24.Reaction of bases with non-metallic oxides: Non – metallic oxides are acidic in nature. Bases react with non- metallic oxides to form salt and water. Example: CO2
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O
25.Amphoteric oxides: Oxides which show acidic as well as basic properties. For example: ZnO, Al2O3
26.Neutral oxides: Oxides which are neither acidic nor basic are called neutral oxides. Example: CO
27.pH: It is used to find out the strength of acids and bases i.e., how strong or weak the acid or a base is. p in pH stands for ‘potenz’ in German. The strength of acids and bases depends on the number of H+ ions and OH- ions produced respectively.
28.pH scale: A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a solution is called pH scale.
29.On pH scale, we measure pH from 0 to 14. pH value:
30.More the hydrogen ion (or hydronium ion) concentration, lower is the pH value.
31.More the hydroxyl ion concentration, higher is the pH value.
32.Variation in pH:
33. Acids which produce more hydrogen ions are said to be strong acids and acids which produce less hydrogen ions are said to be weak acid In other words, strong acids have a lower pH value than weak acids.
34. Bases which produce more hydroxyl ions are said to be strong bases and bases which produce less hydroxyl ions are said to be weak base In other words, strong bases have a higher pH value than weak bases.
35. Living organisms are pH sensitive. Human body works within a pH range of 7.0 to 7.8.
36. Rain water with a pH less than 5.6 is called acid rai This acid rain if it flows into river water makes the survival of aquatic life difficult.
37. Plants also require a specific pH range of soil for their healthy growth.
38. pH of our digestive system: Our stomach produces hydrochloric acid for digestion of food. But during indigestion, excess of acid is produced in the stomach and therefore, the pH decrease This causes pain and irritation. So, to neutralise this excess acid, a mild base is used. This mild base works as an antacid. An antacid is any substance, generally a base or basic salt, which counteracts stomach acidity.
39. Tooth decay: Tooth decay starts when the pH of the mouth is lower than 5.5. Tooth enamel is made up of calcium phosphate which is the hardest substance in the body. It does not dissolve in water, but is corroded when the pH in the mouth is below 5.5. If food particles remain in the mouth after eating, bacteria present in our mouth produce acid by degradation of sugar. This decreases the pH of mouth and hence tooth decay occur The best way to prevent this is to clean the mouth after eating food. Using toothpastes, which are generally basic, for cleaning the teeth can neutralise the excess acid and prevent tooth decay.
40. pH is also significant as it is used in self defence by animals and plant Bees use acids in their sting. To neutralise the effect a mild base like baking soda can be used.
41. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) Preparation:
Chlor Alkali process:
In this process, electricity is passed through an aqueous solution of Sodium chloride (called brine). Sodium chloride decomposes to form sodium hydroxide. Chlorine gas is formed at the anode, and hydrogen gas at the cathode. Sodium hydroxide solution is formed near the cathode.
2NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O (l) ® 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
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