CBSE Class 12 Geography Planning and sustainable Development Assignment

Read and download free pdf of CBSE Class 12 Geography Planning and sustainable Development Assignment. Get printable school Assignments for Class 12 Geography. Standard 12 students should practise questions and answers given here for Geography in Grade 12 which will help them to strengthen their understanding of all important topics. Students should also download free pdf of Printable Worksheets for Class 12 Geography prepared as per the latest books and syllabus issued by NCERT, CBSE, KVS and do problems daily to score better marks in tests and examinations

Planning And Sustainable Development Class 12 Geography Assignment Pdf

Class 12 Geography students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Planning And Sustainable Development in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 Geography will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Class 12 Geography Assignment for Planning And Sustainable Development

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Important Notes and Questions for NCERT Class Business Studies 12 Planning and sustainable Development.
Meaning: - Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done, when and where is to be done, how is to be done and by whom it
should be done. It bridges the gap between where we are standing and where we want to go. “Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do, when to do and who has to do it. Thus, it involves setting objectives and developing an appropriate course of action to achieve those objectives.”
 
Features of Planning 
Planning focuses on achieving objectives by deciding upon the activities to be undertaken. 
Planning is a primary function as it precedes all functions of management i.e. organising, staffing, directing& controlling. 
Planning is pervasive as it is required at all the levels of management but its scope may vary. 
Planning is continuous as plans need to be made on a continuous basis till an organisation exists. 
Planning is futuristic as it seeks to meet future events effectively to the best advantage of an organisation. Planning is, therefore, called a forward looking function. 
Planning involves decision-making as it involves rational thinking to choose the best alternative among the various available alternatives in order to achieve the desired goals efficiently and effectively. 
Planning is a mental exercise as it is based on intellectual thinking involving foresight, visualisation and judgement rather than guess work. Importance of Planning 
Planning provides direction as it acts as a guide for deciding what course of action should be taken to attain the organisational goals. 
Planning reduces the risk of uncertainty arising due to the dynamic nature of business environment as it enables a manager to anticipate and meet changes effectively. 
Planning reduces overlapping & wasteful activities as it serves as the basis for coordinating the activities and efforts of different divisions and individuals. 
Planning promotes innovation as it encourages new ideas that can take shape of concrete plans. 
Planning facilitates decision making as it enables a manager to choose the best alternative course ‘of action among the various available alternatives in light of present and future conditions. 
Planning establishes standards for controlling. Planning provides standards against which the actual performance is measured and timely corrective actions the taken.
 
Steps Involved in the Planning Process 
Setting objectives for the entire organisation and each department or unit within the organisation. 
Developing Premises which reflect the assumptions about the future that the manager is required to make since the future is uncertain. 
Identifying alternative courses of action through which the desired goals can be achieved. 
Evaluating alternative courses to analyse the relative pros and cons of each alternative in light of their feasibility and consequences. 
Selecting an alternative or a combination of plans which appears to be most feasible. 
Implement the plan with the help of a strategy. 
Follow up action in order to monitor the plans to ensure that the desired objectives are achieved efficiently and effectively.
 
Limitations of Planning 
Planning leads to rigidity as plans are drawn in advance and managers may not be in a position to change them in the light of changed conditions. 
Planning may not work in a dynamic environment as through planning, everything cannot be foreseen. 
Planning reduces creativity as the top management undertakes planning of various activities whereas the middle managers are neither allowed to deviate from plans nor are they permitted to act on their own. 
Planning involves huge costs in terms of time and money required to undertake scientific calculations and sometimes it may not justify the benefits derived from it. 
Planning is a time consuming process and sometimes there is not much time left for implementation of the plans. 
Planning does not guarantee success because it is not always essential that if a plan has worked before, it will work again, as things may change. This kind of complacency and false sense of security may actually lead to failure instead of success of a business.
 

 
MCQs for NCERT Class 12 Business Studies Planning and sustainable Development ....

1. Planning is ________
(a) Flexible 
(b) Stable
(c) Rigid 
(d) None of these 
 
ANS. (c) Rigid
 
2. Planning is the ________ function of management.
(a) First 
(b) Second
(c) Third 
(d) Fourth 
 
ANS. (a) First

3. ________ is the base of Planning.
(a) Organising 
(b) Controlling
(c) Forecasting 
(d) Directing 
 
ANS (c) Forecasting
 
 
4. ‘Planning requires logical and systematic thinking rather than guess work or wishful thinking.’ What characteristic of planning does this statement highlight?
ANS Mental exercise.
 
5. Making assumptions for future is called
(a) Making derivative plans 
(b) Making policy
(c) Setting planning premises 
(d) All of the above 
 
ANS. (c) Setting planning premises
 
6. Planning is the
(a) Primary/First function of manager 
(b) Last function of manager
(c) Both (a) and (b) 
(d) None of the above 
 
ANS (a) Primary/First function of manager
 
7. Making assumptions for future is called
(a) Making derivative plans 
(b) Making policy
(c) Setting planning premises 
(d) All of the above 
 
ANS (c) Setting planning premises

 

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