CBSE Class 12 Geography Human Development. Students can download these worksheets and practice them. This will help them to get better marks in examinations. Also refer to other worksheets for the same chapter and other subjects too. Use them for better understanding of the subjects.
GIST OF THE LESSON:
GROWTH: It is the quantitative and value neutral, it may be positive, or negative.
DEVELOPMENT: Qualitative change which is always value positive.
CONCEPT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
The concept of human development was introduced by DR. Mahbub-ul- Haq. Human
development is a process of enlarging people choices and raising the level of their wellbeing.
People can live meaningful life. Life with some purpose, people must be healthy, develop their
talents, participate in society and be free to achieve their goal.
THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
EQUITY: equal opportunities available to everybody.
Irrespective of gender, race, income ( in case of India women and low caste people drop
out the school is more)
SUSTAINABILITY: continuity in availability of resources, each generation must have
PRODUCTIVITY: productivity in terms of labor productivity, it should be constantly
EMPOWERMENT: to have power to make decisions. Increasing freedom and capability,
good governance, and govt. policies.
APPROACHES TO HUMANDEVELOPMENT
INCOME APPROACH: oldest method, level of income leads to development
WELFARE APPROACH: higher the expenditure on education, health, and other amenities
by the government.
BASIC NEEDS APPROACH: it was introduced by ILO
SIX BASIC NEEDS
CAPABILITY APPROACH: associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. Access to education and
Size of the country and per-capita income are not directly related to human development. Like
Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago have higher rank than India in human development.
THERE ARE THREE GROUPS OF HDI
HIGH ABOVE 0.8 57 COUNTRIES
MEDIUM 0.5-0.799 88 COUNTRIES
LOW BELOW 0.5 32 COUNTRIES
COUNTRIES WITH HIGH INDEX VALUE: NORWAY, ICELAND, AUSTRALIA
education and health care are priorities for the government.
COUNTRIES WITH MEDIUM INDEX: it consists of large group, emerged after Second
World War, adopting people oriented policies.
COUNTRIES WITH LOW INDEX VALUE: large number of these countries are very small.
Political turmoil, social instability, civil war, high incidence of diseases.
One Marks Question
Q1. Who introduced the concept of Human development?
Ans. Dr. Mahbub ul Haq
Q2. Which countries has the highest human development index?
Q3. Write four pillars of the human development.
Ans. Equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.
Three Marks Question.
Q1. Name four countries having high human development index. Discuss three reasons for
high human development index.
Ans. Four counties with high human development index:
Reason for high HDI
Investment more in the Social Sector (education, health care)
Free from political turmoil and instability.
Q2. Name any four countries having low human development index.Discuss three reason for
low human development index.
Ans. (1) Democratic Republic of Congo
Reasons for low HDI
Social instability (civil war)
High incidence of diseases.
Q3. Discuss in detail about the alternative view of development given by Dr. Mahbub –ul –
haq and Prof. Amartya Sen .
Ans. For many decades a country’s level of development was measured only in terms of its
The ideas that the quality of life people enjoy in a country, the opportunities they have
and freedoms they enjoy are important aspects of development now and the works of
Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen are important in this regard.
According to Haq-development in all about enlarging people’s choices in order
to lead long, healthy lives with dignity . The basic goal of development is to
create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.
Prof.Amartya Sen saw an increase in freedom or decrease in unfreedom as the
main objective of dvelpment.
The works of these economist are path breaking and have succeeded in bringing
people to the centre of any discussion on development
Five Marks Question
Q1. Define human development .What is the basic goal of human development? Explain
with examples the four pillars of human development.
Ans. Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices , increasing
their opportunities for education, health care , income and empowerment and covering
the full range of human choices from a sound physical environment to economic , social
and political freedom.
The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful
The four pillars of human development:-
Equity –It refers to providing equal access to opportunities available to everybody
irrespective of their gender, race, income and caste.
Sustainability-Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities
for sustainable human development.
Productivity-It refers to human labour productivity in terms of human work. It must
be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people.
Empowerment –It means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes
from increasing freedom and capabilities, good governance and people –oriented
policies, so as to empower people.
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