CBSE Class 12 Geography Human Development

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Human Development. Students can download these worksheets and practice them. This will help them to get better marks in examinations. Also refer to other worksheets for the same chapter and other subjects too. Use them for better understanding of the subjects.


GROWTH: It is the quantitative and value neutral, it may be positive, or negative.

DEVELOPMENT: Qualitative change which is always value positive.


The concept of human development was introduced by DR. Mahbub-ul- Haq. Human

development is a process of enlarging people choices and raising the level of their wellbeing.

People can live meaningful life. Life with some purpose, people must be healthy, develop their

talents, participate in society and be free to achieve their goal.


 EQUITY: equal opportunities available to everybody.

Irrespective of gender, race, income ( in case of India women and low caste people drop

out the school is more)

 SUSTAINABILITY: continuity in availability of resources, each generation must have


 PRODUCTIVITY: productivity in terms of labor productivity, it should be constantly


 EMPOWERMENT: to have power to make decisions. Increasing freedom and capability,

good governance, and govt. policies.


 INCOME APPROACH: oldest method, level of income leads to development

 WELFARE APPROACH: higher the expenditure on education, health, and other amenities

by the government.

 BASIC NEEDS APPROACH: it was introduced by ILO





Water Supply



 CAPABILITY APPROACH: associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. Access to education and

health facilities.



Size of the country and per-capita income are not directly related to human development. Like

Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago have higher rank than India in human development.



 MEDIUM 0.5-0.799 88 COUNTRIES



education and health care are priorities for the government.

 COUNTRIES WITH MEDIUM INDEX: it consists of large group, emerged after Second

World War, adopting people oriented policies.

 COUNTRIES WITH LOW INDEX VALUE: large number of these countries are very small.

Political turmoil, social instability, civil war, high incidence of diseases.

One Marks Question

Q1. Who introduced the concept of Human development?

Ans. Dr. Mahbub ul Haq

Q2. Which countries has the highest human development index?

Ans. Norway

Q3. Write four pillars of the human development.

Ans. Equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.

Three Marks Question.

Q1. Name four countries having high human development index. Discuss three reasons for

high human development index.

Ans. Four counties with high human development index:

1. Norway

2. Australia

3. Netherlands

4. U.S.A

Reason for high HDI

 Investment more in the Social Sector (education, health care)

 Good governance

 Free from political turmoil and instability.


Q2. Name any four countries having low human development index.Discuss three reason for

low human development index.

Ans. (1) Democratic Republic of Congo

(2) Nigeria

(3) Burundi

(4) Mozambique

Reasons for low HDI

 Political turmoil

 Social instability (civil war)

 Famine

 High incidence of diseases.

Q3. Discuss in detail about the alternative view of development given by Dr. Mahbub –ul –

haq and Prof. Amartya Sen .

Ans. For many decades a country’s level of development was measured only in terms of its

economic growth.

The ideas that the quality of life people enjoy in a country, the opportunities they have

and freedoms they enjoy are important aspects of development now and the works of

Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen are important in this regard.

 According to Haq-development in all about enlarging people’s choices in order

to lead long, healthy lives with dignity . The basic goal of development is to

create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.

 Prof.Amartya Sen saw an increase in freedom or decrease in unfreedom as the

main objective of dvelpment.

 The works of these economist are path breaking and have succeeded in bringing

people to the centre of any discussion on development

Five Marks Question

Q1. Define human development .What is the basic goal of human development? Explain

with examples the four pillars of human development.

Ans. Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices , increasing

their opportunities for education, health care , income and empowerment and covering

the full range of human choices from a sound physical environment to economic , social

and political freedom.

The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful


The four pillars of human development:-


 Equity –It refers to providing equal access to opportunities available to everybody

irrespective of their gender, race, income and caste.

 Sustainability-Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities

for sustainable human development.

 Productivity-It refers to human labour productivity in terms of human work. It must

be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people.

 Empowerment –It means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes

from increasing freedom and capabilities, good governance and people –oriented

policies, so as to empower people.

Please click the link below to download CBSE Class 12 Geography Human Development


Click on the text For more study material for Geography please click here - Geography

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