CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2016-2017

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2016-2017. Download the latest syllabus to do your studies as per the latest guidelines issued by CBSE NCERT. The syllabus, weightage of chapters, blue print of question papers and the design of question papers is issued every year for the benefit of students. Access all syllabus for all subjects here.

Syllabus (Session-2016-17)



Theory Paper Time 3 hrs

MM : 100

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography 30 Marks

Unit 1: Human Geography

Unit 2: People

Unit 3: Human Activities

Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade

Unit 5: Human settlements

Unit 6: Map Work 5 Marks

B. India: People and Economy 30 Marks

Unit 7: People

Unit 8: Human Settlements

Unit 9: Resources and Development

Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade

Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems

Unit 12: Map Work 5 Marks

C. Practical Work 30 Marks

Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping 15

Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology 10

Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce 5




Part-A. Fundamentals of Human Geography 90 Periods

35 Marks

Unit 1: Human Geography:Nature and Scope 05 Periods

Unit 2: People 18 Periods

 Population-distribution,density and growth

 Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population


 Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;

 Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons.

Unit 3: Human Activities28 Periods

Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining,

subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied

activities - some examples from selected countries.

Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large

scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities

- some examples from selected countries.

Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in

tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries.

Quaternary activities-concept; people engaged in quaternary activities - case study

from selected countries.

Unit 4: Transport,Communication and Trade23 periods

 Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.

 Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.

 Air transport- Intercontinental air routes.

 Oil and gas pipelines.

 Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical

information; use of GPS.

 International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of

international trade, role of WTO in International trade.

 OCEAN: National rights and international treaties.

Unit5: Human Settlements 10 periods

 Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution

of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Unit6: Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/

Physical/Political map of World. 05 periods

Part B : India: People and Economy 90 Periods

Unit7: People 15 Periods

 Population : distribution, density and growth; composition of population -

linguistic, religious; sex,

Rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population.

 Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.

 Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.

 Population, environment and development.

Unit 8: Human Settlements 10 Periods

 Rural settlements - types and distribution.

 Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit 9: Resources and Development 30 Periods

 Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions

and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute,

Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.

 Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and

other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and

watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed

management to be introduced).

 Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite,

Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum,

Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar,

wind, biogas) and conservation.

 Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern

of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and

knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatization and

globalization on industrial location; industrial clusters.

 Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable

development (case study).


Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade1 5 Periods

 Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and

gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.

 International trade- changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their

hinterland and airports.

Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study tobe

introduced for each topic) 15 Periods

 Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.

 Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.

 Land degradation.

Unit 12: Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on

outlinemap of India. 05 Marks

Part C Practical Work 40 Periods

Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping 25 Periods

 Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources.

 Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central

tendency, deviation and rank correlation.

 Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart;

thematic maps;

 Construction of dot; choropleth and isopleth maps.

 Data analysis and generation of diagrams, graphs and other visual diagrams using


Unit 2: Field Study or Spatial Information Technology 15 Periods

 Field visit and study: map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch;

survey on any one of ;

 The local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use

changes, poverty, energy issues.

 Soil degradation, impact of floods and drought, catchment area of school, Market

survey andHousehold survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up

for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data

collection; collected data may be tabulated and analyzed with diagrams and

maps). Students can be given different topics to get more insight into various

problems of society.


Spatial Information Technology

Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats;

raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay

and buffer.

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