NCERT Solutions Class 12 Sociology Change and Development in Rural Society. The NCERT solutions for Class 12 Sociology book have been made by Sociology teacher of one of the best CBSE school in India. Sociology in class 12 is an important subject for Class 12 Humanities students. Its easy to learn and can help to get good marks. These NCERT solutions have been made to give detailed answers and explanations which can be easily understood by the students. You can download the NCERT solutions for free in pdf format. Refer to other links also to download Class 12 Sociology NCERT solutions, worksheets, sample papers and test papers.
1.Read the passage given and answer the questions:
The harsh working conditions suffered by labourers in Aghanbigha were an outcome of the combined effect of the economic power of the maliks as a class and their overwhelming power as members of a dominant caste. A significant aspect of the social power of the maliks was their ability to secure the intervention of various arms of the state to advance their interests. Thus, political factors decisively contributed to widening the gulf between the dominant class and the underclass.
(i)Why do you think the maliks were able to use the power of the state to advance their own interests?
(ii) Why did labourers have harsh working conditions?
Answer. (i) (a) The maliks being dominant caste were very powerful politically, economically and socially.
(b)Because of power they were able to use the power of state for their vested interests.
(c)They were successfully able to secure the intervention of various arms of the state for their own benefit.
(ii)The labour have been working under harsh conditions because being dalits, they were not allowed to own land and compelled to work in the lands of dominant caste people as a labourer.
2. What measures do you think the government has taken, or should take, to protect the rights of landless agricultural labourers and migrant workers?
Answer. Measures to protect the right of Landless:
-- Abolition of bonded labour legally:
Bandhua mazdoor (bonded labourers) practice in U.P and Bihar, Halpati System in Gujarat and Jeeta System in Karnataka has been legally abolished by Government of India.
-- Abolition of Zamindari System:
The intermediaries between the peasants and the state were the Zamindars. The state very effectively and intensively passed legislation and this system was abolished.
-- Abolition and regulation act for Tenancy:
These laws discouraged tenancy or ‘Batai’ system. In West Bengal and Kerala, where CPI systems government was in power the tenants got the land rights.
-- Imposition of Land Ceiling Act:
According to this act the upper limit of land for an owner is being fixed. Because of this act to identify surplus land and redistribute among the landless became programme of the
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