NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual Purification and Criteria of Purity

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                                                 PURIFICATION AND CRITERIA OF PURITY

 For the identification of a compound, qualitative analysis of pure substance is required. Therefore, first we have to purify the substance and then check its purity. There are many techniques namely, crystallisation, distillation sublimation, chromatography etc. available for purification of a compound. In this unit you will learn about crystallisation as a technique for purification of a compound. The purity of a compound may be checked by determining its melting or boiling point. The technique for determination of melting and boiling points will also be described in this unit. Pure solid and liquid compounds possess sharp melting and boiling points. Therefore, melting and boiling points of a compound can be used as  a criteria of purity.

EXPERIMENT 3.1

 Aim

Purification  of sample of any one of the following Potash alum, Copper sulphate or Benzoic acid by crystallisation.

Theory

Crystallisation is one of the techniques for the purification of an impure compound particularly when the original crude material obtained after a reaction is in a very impure condition. First step of the process involves choosing a single solvent or a mixture of solvents, which dissolves the crude material readily when hot, but only to a small extent when cold. The crude substance is then dissolved in the minimum amount of boiling solvent to obtain a saturated solution. Insoluble impurities are removed by filtering the hot solution. It is then checked for crystallisation point and then cooled slowly when the solute crystallises out leaving the greater part of impurities in the solution. The crop of crystals is collected by filtration and the process is repeated until the crystals of pure substance are obtained. Sometimes during cooling minute quantity of the substance (solid which is being purified) is added to the solution to facilitate the initial crystallisation. This is called seeding. The added tiny crystal acts as a ‘nucleus’ for the growth of new crystals. Growth of crystals depends upon the conditions in which crystallisation is carried out. For obtaining good crystals, rapid cooling should be avoided because it results into small or disfigured crystals. Purity of crystals is often judged from the colour of the crystals. For example, pure crystals of alum, copper sulphate and benzoic acid are white, blue and

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